Public Choice Theory: James Buchanan is a Novel Prize winner for contribution to “Public Choice Theory.” Public Choice Theory is one of Modern Public Administration Paradigms. In his recent book on design in the public sector, Bason (2017) stresses that we need to move from government-centricity to citizen-centricity. Reforms were long overdue in the Banking sector and the government took up this issue in earnest. T. Brandsen, T. Steen, and B. Verschuere (London: Routledge), 284–293. Also, the State of Alabama struggled to maintain the speed of information exchange that the public was expecting. These technologies reduce the transaction costs for massive collaboration dramatically and thus facilitate new forms of collaboration that we could call “open governance”. He focuses on two main things. We can see these forms of Digital altruism/volunteerism in the Alabama case (Crowe, 2013): volunteers from anywhere in the world come together to share data and facilitate coordination and both collective and personalized response to particular needs. Other scholars too argue that we are witnessing the transition from traditional Public Administration (PA) and NPM paradigms, which are focused on government- and organization-centric ways of managing the design and implementation of public policy and the delivery of public services, toward a NPG paradigm which helps us to better understand and explain how “wicked” policy problems and societal needs can be met more effectively (Osborne, 2010; see also: Bang, 2003; Kjaer, 2004; van Kersbergen and van Waarden, 2004). Rev. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group. This theoretical viewpoint paper aims to explore the core elements and the underlying socio-technical developments of this new Open Governance (OG) paradigm and highlight its value for understanding smart city dynamics by comparing and contrasting OG with existing governance paradigms. 33, 540–555. Rev. doi: 10.1145/2037556.2037602, Noveck, B. S. (2015). 37, 28–37. The final section presents a critical reflection on this new paradigm and highlight a research agenda for studying new forms of urban governance facilitated by (platform) technologies (section Outline of a New Paradigm). As we are increasingly living our lives through digital networks and devices, data about people, things, and places are produced on a massive scale nowadays. The thinking about the potential need of a new governance paradigm in a digital era where traditional government-centric paradigms no longer seem fit, is not new and is supported by several scholars (e.g., Benkler, 2006; Dunleavy et al., 2006; Hess and Ostrom, 2006; Osborne, 2010; Lips, 2012; Kitchin, 2014). Also, Over 10,000 tax cases from Tribunals, and over 5,700 cases from High Courts were withdrawn by raising threshold for appeals filed by the government. In comparison, the State of Alabama Emergency Management Agency only had slightly more than 3,000 followers at the time and struggled to find ways to quickly and adequately address basic needs in the local community that were brought up via the social media sites. The state provides a platform for collaboration of networks of individuals to produce relevant information around a shared value (such as security, mobility, or relief). Steen et al. The New Social Operating System. A New Governance Paradigm Jun 07, 2016 “We are transforming the wheels of government and integrating latest technology to make systems more transparent, effective and participative. Policy 32, 925–943. It has also led to the end of political interference in personnel decisions. New technologies do not only enhance the information position of governments but also reduce the transaction costs of collaboration and therefore facilitate new forms of large scale engagement. Res. In sum, in the New Paradigm a board and the corporation’s senior leadership should jointly: 1. doi: 10.1201/b14938, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Danziger, J. As we have already indicated, the open governance paradigm will not replace the other paradigms but it does offer new opportunities to realize public value in cities. Alexander ( 2019 ) expands on lead firm governance in global value chains and global production networks. Mirroring two perspectives on complexity,” in Network theory in the public sector: Building new theoretical frameworks, eds R. Keast, M. Mandell, and R. Agranoff (London: Routledge), 157–173. Sci. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Usually NPG and NPM are discussed in the setting of democratic regimes. We argue that the recently emerging paradigm of New Public Governance (NPG) (Osborne, 2010) also fails to capture the dynamics of open governance since it does not acknowledge the emergent—pop-up—character of the new collaborations; neither does it present an understanding of massive individualized collaboration in cities. Seven evils,” in Co-Production and Co-Creation: Engaging Citizens in Public Services, ed. doi: 10.2307/974506. Real-life case examples such as the initiatives presented above demonstrate in a powerful way that traditional governance paradigms, with government as the dominant player, are no longer applicable to many emergent, technology-enabled initiatives where complex policy problems are solved in more effective ways. The introduction of new tools for open collaboration in the public domain is rapidly changing the way collaborative action is organized. Governance. (2006). Oxford: Oxford University Press. The different components of the new frame are presented in the next section: radical openness, citizen-centricity, connected intelligence, digital altruism, and crowdsourced deliberation (section Core Elements of the Open Governance Paradigm). THE NEW PUBLIC GOVERNANCE? 'This book showcases the best writing on ‘public governance’, bringing together new research in institutional analysis, policy dynamics, and government-society relationships. "Emerging Paradigms of Corporate Governance and Managerial Professionalization in Family Firms", 2016 Abstract: Most businesses, particularly in Asia, are family controlled and managed, contributing immensely to the development of the economies. De Kerckhove, D. (2001). This emergent “ad hoc”organisation consisting of a large variety of individual, organisational, and institutional actors all using open data, a digital platform and web-based digital networks turned out to be critical in order to manage this natural disaster more effectively for all people concerned—an activity that has traditionally been undertaken by an institutionalised public sector organisation, usually part of government and using a command-and-control style approach. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2003.tb00216.x. The much celebrated success of the liberal democracy and its market-led open economy heralded as an era of good governance. Copyright © 2019 Meijer, Lips and Chen. Based on illustrative real-life cases, such as the one described above, we will argue that we need a new paradigm that is better capable of explaining these emerging innovative forms of governing. good governance an imperative if Cameroon must be an emerging economy by 2035. doi: 10.1080/14719030802263954, Klijn, E. H., and Koppenjan, J. F. M. (2012), Governance network theory: past present future. Memorandum to the Heads of the Executive Departments and Agencies, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC (accessed September 30, 2015). After contesting the noise pollution measurement models developed by the Dutch government, citizens set up their own digitized data collection and measurement system of noise pollution. This new paradigm follows up on NPG but radicalizes this notion by focusing on what Wellman et al. (2003). The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online. 29, 596–611. In comparison, NPG acknowledges the importance of positioning government agencies in a networked, pluralistic environment with other actors from the public, private, and non-governmental sectors. The government still takes the dominant role in leading the whole process. The notion that “some are willing to freely reveal what they know” is interesting. Basingstoke: Palgrave. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-14956-1_14, Hansson, K., Belkacem, K., and Ekenberg, L. (2015). sets out to explore this emergent field of research and to present a framework with which to understand it. This paper analyzes micro-level dynamics of changes in ownership structures. Agranov, R., and McGuire, M. (2003). Policy 17, 239–250. The open governance paradigm disconnects the idea of co-production—as formulated in the NPG Paradigm—from a relation between government and citizen. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. For instance, some argue that the traditional NPM paradigm is dead, and is being replaced by a so-called “Digital-Era Governance” (DEG) model (Dunleavy et al., 2006). 78, 10–29. Lips, M. (2012). This results in a set of new features for these forms of collaboration and we have categorized as five components: radical openness, citizens-centricity, connected intelligence, digital altruism, and crowdsourced deliberation. ^This theoretical paper is based on the authors' interpretation of (1) a host of examples from different continents that we encountered in our academic work and reading, (2) our interpretation of academic and popular literature on new forms of organizing (e.g., De Kerckhove, 2001; Wellman et al., 2003; Von Hippel, 2005; Goleman, 2010; Lathrop and Ruma, 2010; Kitchin, 2014; Noveck, 2015) and (3) a connection of this literature to the debate on governance (Bang, 2003; Kjaer, 2004; Osborne, 2010). By connecting new insights from studies on digital governance to the debate about governance paradigms, this paper results in a set crucial empirical and normative questions about governance in a time of platforms1. doi: 10.1332/030557312X655431. Although the practices vary considerably, three underlying principles are seen as critical to achieve effective mass collaboration initiatives in the public sector, namely (1) openness of data: treating information as a collective strategic asset and worth collecting, using, preserving and sharing; (2) data quality assurance: data collected and/or used by volunteers should be credible and usable; and (3) open participation: treating the collective expertise and information of members of the public as valuable assets which enhance the effectiveness of public policy and improve the quality of public decision-making, individual volunteers are acknowledged for their contributions and see benefits from participating (Holdren, 2015). AM has been the coordinating author. J. Yet, OG, because of its feature of digitalization and ICT, attends to phenomena in authoritarian regimes. Responsive Governance: Introduction of a new framework, PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation), under which the Prime Minister reviews project implementation and grievances every month with officials across the country. With the development of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in the recent decade, citizens have begun to generate data to help government identify crime, manage environment, and the public infrastructure; to organize social movements and protests or to report and monitor government misbehavior. Admin. Int. ‘Stephen Osborne is to be congratulated for assembling an impressive array of contributors and producing a text which makes a major contribution to the debates about this emerging paradigm.’ Robert Pyper Glasgow Caledonian University, UK ‘This book showcases the best writing on “public governance”, bring- He focuses on two main things. Another example is on opening the policy making process. Rev. Aitamurto, T., and Landemore, H. (2016). We use the term Open Governance to refer to these new, emerging configurations of collaboration. Shakespeare immortalised the potential venality of business in The Merchant of Venice, “All that glister… Public Choice Theory: James Buchanan is a Novel Prize winner for contribution to “Public Choice Theory.” Public Choice Theory is one of Modern Public Administration Paradigms. Lathrop, D., and Ruma, L. (2010). |, Open Governance: Examples From Different Policy Domains, Core Elements of the Open Governance Paradigm, UK House of Commons Science Technology Committee (2016),,, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Smart city governance is not only about technology but also about re-organizing collaboration between a variety of actors. *Correspondence: Albert Jacob Meijer,, Front. (2011). These topics can form the starting point for a research agenda that focuses on citizens as individual collaborators in the smart city and how they are supported by governments or other public platform providers. Available online at:, Van Dijck, J., Poell, T., and De Waal, M. (2018). KC contributed to the framework as well and provided important input for the core elements of the open governance paradigm. The governance includes deliberation rather than just participation, that is, people of plural values are heard and considered. In this paper, we will discuss practices from crisis management, security control and environmental governance. To develop a firm understanding of this new form of governance, we will compare it with existing models of governance. Kjaer, A. M. (2004). Media Psychol. It provides a good balance of conceptual insights and empirical analysis grounded in the large changes evident in advanced countries in recent decades.' The welfare of the working class has not been neglected either – Online portals for labour issues, Employees State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) and Employees Provident Fund Organization (EPFO) were set up which proved to be extremely helpful and effective. Additionally, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code has assured fast track insolvency resolution process while safeguarding the rights of the employees. Managing Uncertainty in Networks. The Canterbury earthquake case example presented above is not an isolated, one-off event: indeed we can observe more real-life examples that point toward new collective forms of technology-enabled data-sharing across a wide range of actors, where the role of government is limited and mass digital altruism, openness, and bottom-up self-organization are important features in these processes of collective action. Cultural theory of governance is a prominent approach to scrutinize government of developing or undeveloped countries (Asaduzzaman & Virtanen 2016). Res. A number of facts can be underscored at this stage: (1) it is not always clear to draw a timeline for the emergence of the governance paradigm which according to Henry chronology, began from 1990 to present; (2) some would regard the governance paradigm as part of the NPM, and (3) Paradigm shifts in public administration are usually driven by practice rather than ideas, while ideas that reside … Int. Kitchin, R. (2014). The Architecture of Intelligence. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.07.004, UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (2016). doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00095-1. Journal of Peace Research 2016 35: 1, 25-42 Download Citation. doi: 10.1108/IJPSM-01-2016-0001, Meijer, A., and Bolívar, M. P. R. (2016). For some investors, emerging markets offer an attractive opportunity, but they also […] OPA, NPM, NPG, and OG are all still relevant to understand interactions in the public domain. Rev. New York, NY: Penguin. Commun. The real-time city? The Bank Board Bureau was set up to facilitate ‘no interference policy’ which gave the banks the freedom and authority to make crucial decisions. 2. The dynamics of collaboration that resulted in initiatives such as Wikipedia and Linux but also in responses to disasters, up-to-date information about traffic jams and participatory forms of security governance are not therefore insufficiently covered by NPG and require new theoretical building blocks. Another example can be found in The Netherlands, where the extension of Amsterdam Airport had triggered public debate about the level of noise generated by air traffic. In this paper we have argued that the new forms of individualized massive collaboration in cities, facilitated by new technologies, should be understood from the perspective of a new paradigm for governance: Open Governance. An ICT-driven E-Governance system primarily involves the creation, storage, analysis, dissemination and use of information and communication. This paradigm shift will represent a quantum shift away from mechanistic, naturalistic, materialistic conceptions and models of human society, making human welfare the focal point and central objective, affirming the central importance and validity of universal values in the human sciences, restoring scientific legitimacy to subjective experience, and recognizing the catalytic role of creative individuals … (2003). 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