Evidence of academic impact may be derived through various bibliometric methods, one example of which is the H index, which has incorporated factors such as the number of publications and citations. The Economic and Social Benefits of HRB-funded Research, Measuring the Economic and Social Impact of the Arts: A Review, Research Excellence Framework Impact Pilot Exercise: Findings of the Expert Panels, Assessment Framework and Guidance on Submissions, Research Impact Evaluation, a Wider Context. Over the past year, there have been a number of new posts created within universities, such as writing impact case studies, and a number of companies are now offering this as a contract service. This is particularly recognized in the development of new government policy where findings can influence policy debate and policy change, without recognition of the contributing research (Davies et al. However, it must be remembered that in the case of the UK REF, impact is only considered that is based on research that has taken place within the institution submitting the case study. The fast-moving developments in the field of altmetrics (or alternative metrics) are providing a richer understanding of how research is being used, viewed, and moved. ASSESSMENT  The process of gathering quantitative and qualitative data of what a student can do, and how much a student possesses. Studies (Buxton, Hanney and Jones 2004) into the economic gains from biomedical and health sciences determined that different methodologies provide different ways of considering economic benefits. Such a framework should be not linear but recursive, including elements from contextual environments that influence and/or interact with various aspects of the system. ... then my definition or my choice of assessment is faulty. Perhaps, SROI indicates the desire to be able to demonstrate the monetary value of investment and impact by some organizations. Prague, Czech Republic, Health Research—Making an Impact. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole. The ability to write a persuasive well-evidenced case study may influence the assessment of impact. 2010; Hanney and González-Block 2011) and can be thought of in two parts: a model that allows the research and subsequent dissemination process to be broken into specific components within which the benefits of research can be studied, and second, a multi-dimensional classification scheme into which the various outputs, outcomes, and impacts can be placed (Hanney and Gonzalez Block 2011). By asking academics to consider the impact of the research they undertake and by reviewing and funding them accordingly, the result may be to compromise research by steering it away from the imaginative and creative quest for knowledge. The risk of relying on narratives to assess impact is that they often lack the evidence required to judge whether the research and impact are linked appropriately. To enable research organizations including HEIs to monitor and manage their performance and understand and disseminate the contribution that they are making to local, national, and international communities. We use the term in everyday language - as a noun (a 'stress'), a verb (to 'stress') and even an adjective (a stress _____). Inform funding. What indicators, evidence, and impacts need to be captured within developing systems? There is a great deal of interest in collating terms for impact and indicators of impact. n.d.). Research findings including outputs (e.g., presentations and publications), Communications and interactions with stakeholders and the wider public (emails, visits, workshops, media publicity, etc), Feedback from stakeholders and communication summaries (e.g., testimonials and altmetrics), Research developments (based on stakeholder input and discussions), Outcomes (e.g., commercial and cultural, citations), Impacts (changes, e.g., behavioural and economic). Definition of Education by Different Authors Education has been defined by many educationists, philosophers and authors. Here we outline a few of the most notable models that demonstrate the contrast in approaches available. In the UK, evaluation of academic and broader socio-economic impact takes place separately. It is the responsibility of the manager to create and maintain a good working atmosphere in an organisation. The Goldsmith report (Cooke and Nadim 2011) recommended making indicators ‘value free’, enabling the value or quality to be established in an impact descriptor that could be assessed by expert panels. (2007) adapted the terminology of the Payback Framework, developed for the health and biomedical sciences from ‘benefit’ to ‘impact’ when modifying the framework for the social sciences, arguing that the positive or negative nature of a change was subjective and can also change with time, as has commonly been highlighted with the drug thalidomide, which was introduced in the 1950s to help with, among other things, morning sickness but due to teratogenic effects, which resulted in birth defects, was withdrawn in the early 1960s. This article aims to explore what is understood by the term ‘research impact’ and to provide a comprehensive assimilation of available literature and information, drawing on global experiences to understand the potential for methods and frameworks of impact assessment being implemented for UK impact assessment. terms performance assessment, authentic assessment, and formative assessment. Although some authors delineate diagnostic assessment as a component of formative assessment, most consider it a distinct form of measurement (Kellough et al, 1999; McMillan, 2000). It is now possible to use data-mining tools to extract specific data from narratives or unstructured data (Mugabushaka and Papazoglou 2012). Some authors regard … Cooke and Nadim (2011) also noted that using a linear-style taxonomy did not reflect the complex networks of impacts that are generally found. In education, the term assessment refers to the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students. 2008), developed during the mid-1990s by Buxton and Hanney, working at Brunel University. Again the objective and perspective of the individuals and organizations assessing impact will be key to understanding how temporal and dissipated impact will be valued in comparison with longer-term impact. Eng. Here is a sampling of the definitions you will see: Mirriam-Webster Dictionary Definition of Assessment: The action or an instance of assessing, appraisal Definition of assess: 1: to determine the rate or amount of (as a tax)2 a: to impose This might include the citation of a piece of research in policy documents or reference to a piece of research being cited within the media. The RQF pioneered the case study approach to assessing research impact; however, with a change in government in 2007, this framework was never implemented in Australia, although it has since been taken up and adapted for the UK REF. Impact can be temporary or long-lasting. Educational assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. The transition to routine capture of impact data not only requires the development of tools and systems to help with implementation but also a cultural change to develop practices, currently undertaken by a few to be incorporated as standard behaviour among researchers and universities. Figure 2 demonstrates the information that systems will need to capture and link. The Goldsmith report concluded that general categories of evidence would be more useful such that indicators could encompass dissemination and circulation, re-use and influence, collaboration and boundary work, and innovation and invention. 2007). Ed. To demonstrate to government, stakeholders, and the wider public the value of research. HEFCE indicated that impact should merit a 25% weighting within the REF (REF2014 2011b); however, this has been reduced for the 2014 REF to 20%, perhaps as a result of feedback and lobbying, for example, from the Russell Group and Million + group of Universities who called for impact to count for 15% (Russell Group 2009; Jump 2011) and following guidance from the expert panels undertaking the pilot exercise who suggested that during the 2014 REF, impact assessment would be in a developmental phase and that a lower weighting for impact would be appropriate with the expectation that this would be increased in subsequent assessments (REF2014 2010). There is a distinction between ‘academic impact’ understood as the intellectual contribution to one’s field of study within academia and ‘external socio-economic impact’ beyond academia. (2008), and Hanney and González-Block (2011). The well-known definition that knowledge is justified true belief is shown to have the limitations given by the justification condition and the truth nature. Where quantitative data were available, for example, audience numbers or book sales, these numbers rarely reflected the degree of impact, as no context or baseline was available. Any information on the context of the data will be valuable to understanding the degree to which impact has taken place. Narratives can be used to describe impact; the use of narratives enables a story to be told and the impact to be placed in context and can make good use of qualitative information. Although based on the RQF, the REF did not adopt all of the suggestions held within, for example, the option of allowing research groups to opt out of impact assessment should the nature or stage of research deem it unsuitable (Donovan 2008). These case studies were reviewed by expert panels and, as with the RQF, they found that it was possible to assess impact and develop ‘impact profiles’ using the case study approach (REF2014 2010). Definition of Management by Eminent Authors Management is a word that is quite wide spread and cannot ever have a precise and concise definition. While valuing and supporting knowledge exchange is important, SIAMPI perhaps takes this a step further in enabling these exchange events to be captured and analysed. Recommendations from the REF pilot were that the panel should be able to extend the time frame where appropriate; this, however, poses difficult decisions when submitting a case study to the REF as to what the view of the panel will be and whether if deemed inappropriate this will render the case study ‘unclassified’. A collation of several indicators of impact may be enough to convince that an impact has taken place. Researchers were asked to evidence the economic, societal, environmental, and cultural impact of their research within broad categories, which were then verified by an expert panel (Duryea et al. What is Tax ? The Payback Framework is possibly the most widely used and adapted model for impact assessment (Wooding et al. Figure 1, replicated from Hughes and Martin (2012), illustrates how the ease with which impact can be attributed decreases with time, whereas the impact, or effect of complementary assets, increases, highlighting the problem that it may take a considerable amount of time for the full impact of a piece of research to develop but because of this time and the increase in complexity of the networks involved in translating the research and interim impacts, it is more difficult to attribute and link back to a contributing piece of research. Collating the evidence and indicators of impact is a significant task that is being undertaken within universities and institutions globally. 2. Learning styles refer to a range of competing and contested theories that aim to account for differences in individuals' learning. Reviews and guidance on developing and evidencing impact in particular disciplines include the London School of Economics (LSE) Public Policy Group’s impact handbook (LSE n.d.), a review of the social and economic impacts arising from the arts produced by Reeve (Reeves 2002), and a review by Kuruvilla et al. This distinction is not so clear in impact assessments outside of the UK, where academic outputs and socio-economic impacts are often viewed as one, to give an overall assessment of value and change created through research. The Social Return on Investment (SROI) guide (The SROI Network 2012) suggests that ‘The language varies “impact”, “returns”, “benefits”, “value” but the questions around what sort of difference and how much of a difference we are making are the same’. Impact is often the culmination of work within spanning research communities (Duryea et al. It is acknowledged in the article by Mugabushaka and Papazoglou (2012) that it will take years to fully incorporate the impacts of ERC funding. Before creating the instruction, it’s necessary to know for what kind of students you’re creating the instruction. Thalidomide has since been found to have beneficial effects in the treatment of certain types of cancer. The Value of Public Sector R&D’, ‘Assessing impacts of higher education systems’, ‘National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement’, Through a Glass, Darkly: Measuring the Social Value of Universities, ‘Describing the Impact of Health Research: A Research Impact Framework’, LSE Public Policy Group. There has been a drive from the UK government through Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and the Research Councils (HM Treasury 2004) to account for the spending of public money by demonstrating the value of research to tax payers, voters, and the public in terms of socio-economic benefits (European Science Foundation 2009), in effect, justifying this expenditure (Davies Nutley, and Walter 2005; Hanney and González-Block 2011). (2007) surveyed researchers in the US top research institutions during 2005; the survey of more than 6000 researchers found that, on average, more than 40% of their time was spent doing administrative tasks. The definition of recruitment and selection are given according to various authors. However, the Achilles heel of any such attempt, as critics suggest, is the creation of a system that rewards what it can measure and codify, with the knock-on effect of directing research projects to deliver within the measures and categories that reward. In undertaking excellent research, we anticipate that great things will come and as such one of the fundamental reasons for undertaking research is that we will generate and transform knowledge that will benefit society as a whole. (2006) on the impact arising from health research. working paper). ‘The justification for a university is that it preserves the connection between knowledge and the zest of life, by uniting the young and the old in the imaginative consideration of learning. In the UK, UK Department for Business, Innovation, and Skills provided funding of £150 million for knowledge exchange in 2011–12 to ‘help universities and colleges support the economic recovery and growth, and contribute to wider society’ (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills 2012). To begin, educators need an operational definition of assessment. The quality and reliability of impact indicators will vary according to the impact we are trying to describe and link to research. systematic process of documenting and using empirical data to measure knowledge Decker et al. Critical Analysis of Selected Definitions: Definition given by famous authors Koontz and O’ Donnel – In this definition there are two main points to be distinguished as below – i. assessment synonyms, assessment pronunciation, assessment translation, English dictionary definition of assessment. Science rules! CERIF (Common European Research Information Format) was developed for this purpose, first released in 1991; a number of projects and systems across Europe such as the ERC Research Information System (Mugabushaka and Papazoglou 2012) are being developed as CERIF-compatible. What are the methodologies and frameworks that have been employed globally to assess research impact and how do these compare? When considering the impact that is generated as a result of research, a number of authors and government recommendations have advised that a clear definition of impact is required (Duryea, Hochman, and Parfitt 2007; Grant et al. A taxonomy of impact categories was then produced onto which impact could be mapped. It is acknowledged that one of the outcomes of developing new knowledge through research can be ‘knowledge creep’ where new data or information becomes accepted and gets absorbed over time. Impact is derived not only from targeted research but from serendipitous findings, good fortune, and complex networks interacting and translating knowledge and research. assessment’s rightful position as one priority for middle grade teachers and their students. It can be seen from the panel guidance produced by HEFCE to illustrate impacts and evidence that it is expected that impact and evidence will vary according to discipline (REF2014 2012). It is desirable that the assignation of administrative tasks to researchers is limited, and therefore, to assist the tracking and collating of impact data, systems are being developed involving numerous projects and developments internationally, including Star Metrics in the USA, the ERC (European Research Council) Research Information System, and Lattes in Brazil (Lane 2010; Mugabushaka and Papazoglou 2012). Any tool for impact evaluation needs to be flexible, such that it enables access to impact data for a variety of purposes (Scoble et al. Findings from a Research Impact Pilot, ‘Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Research’, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, ‘Introducing ‘Productive Interactions’ in Social Impact Assessment’, Measuring the Impact of Publicly Funded Research, Department of Education, Science and Training, Statement on the Research Excellence Framework Proposals, Handbook on the Theory and Practice of Program Evaluation, Policy and Practice Impacts of Research Funded by the Economic Social Research Council. In 2009–10, the REF team conducted a pilot study for the REF involving 29 institutions, submitting case studies to one of five units of assessment (in clinical medicine, physics, earth systems and environmental sciences, social work and social policy, and English language and literature) (REF2014 2010). In development of the RQF, The Allen Consulting Group (2005) highlighted that defining a time lag between research and impact was difficult. 11 Professor James Ladyman, at the University of Bristol, a vocal adversary of awarding funding based on the assessment of research impact, has been quoted as saying that ‘…inclusion of impact in the REF will create “selection pressure,” promoting academic research that has “more direct economic impact” or which is easier to explain to the public’ (Corbyn 2009). n.d.). Baily (1998) hold that there are eight kinds of language assessment. Evaluation of impact is becoming increasingly important, both within the UK and internationally, and research and development into impact evaluation continues, for example, researchers at Brunel have developed the concept of depth and spread further into the Brunel Impact Device for Evaluation, which also assesses the degree of separation between research and impact (Scoble et al. What are the reasons behind trying to understand and evaluate research impact? Although it can be envisaged that the range of impacts derived from research of different disciplines are likely to vary, one might question whether it makes sense to compare impacts within disciplines when the range of impact can vary enormously, for example, from business development to cultural changes or saving lives? institutions, perhaps with different goals. One way in which change of opinion and user perceptions can be evidenced is by gathering of stakeholder and user testimonies or undertaking surveys. 2007). In the UK, there have been several Jisc-funded projects in recent years to develop systems capable of storing research information, for example, MICE (Measuring Impacts Under CERIF), UK Research Information Shared Service, and Integrated Research Input and Output System, all based on the CERIF standard. A discussion on the benefits and drawbacks of a range of evaluation tools (bibliometrics, economic rate of return, peer review, case study, logic modelling, and benchmarking) can be found in the article by Grant (2006). Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of wha… Research findings will be taken up in other branches of research and developed further before socio-economic impact occurs, by which point, attribution becomes a huge challenge. The Payback Framework enables health and medical research and impact to be linked and the process by which impact occurs to be traced. 2006; Nason et al. While looking forward, we will be able to reduce this problem in the future, identifying, capturing, and storing the evidence in such a way that it can be used in the decades to come is a difficulty that we will need to tackle. There must be hundreds of definitions of stress. This raises the questions of whether UK business and industry should not invest in the research that will deliver them impacts and who will fund basic research if not the government? A variety of types of indicators can be captured within systems; however, it is important that these are universally understood. One might consider that by funding excellent research, impacts (including those that are unforeseen) will follow, and traditionally, assessment of university research focused on academic quality and productivity. From 2014, research within UK universities and institutions will be assessed through the REF; this will replace the Research Assessment Exercise, which has been used to assess UK research since the 1980s. A key concern here is that we could find that universities which can afford to employ either consultants or impact ‘administrators’ will generate the best case studies. Concerns over how to attribute impacts have been raised many times (The Allen Consulting Group 2005; Duryea et al. This is being done for collation of academic impact and outputs, for example, Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools, which uses PubMed and text mining to cluster research projects, and STAR Metrics in the US, which uses administrative records and research outputs and is also being implemented by the ERC using data in the public domain (Mugabushaka and Papazoglou 2012). This is recognized as being particularly problematic within the social sciences where informing policy is a likely impact of research. The growing trend for accountability within the university system is not limited to research and is mirrored in assessments of teaching quality, which now feed into evaluation of universities to ensure fee-paying students’ satisfaction. Metrics have commonly been used as a measure of impact, for example, in terms of profit made, number of jobs provided, number of trained personnel recruited, number of visitors to an exhibition, number of items purchased, and so on. Developing systems and taxonomies for capturing impact, 7. Understanding what impact looks like across the various strands of research and the variety of indicators and proxies used to evidence impact will be important to developing a meaningful assessment. There are areas of basic research where the impacts are so far removed from the research or are impractical to demonstrate; in these cases, it might be prudent to accept the limitations of impact assessment, and provide the potential for exclusion in appropriate circumstances. 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